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102                  HISTORY OK PKHSIA                  n,A|.,
ances, and secretive, but more generous in disposition than
his upbringing and circumstances would lead us to expect.
Malik^KawardofKmmn^\.\\. 4,U;4/>5 0°4l -1072),
—Although it was the career of Toghril Beg that
governed "the fortunes of the Seljuk dynasty, we may
turn aside for a moment to notice the Herman dynasty,
which lasted from A.H. 433 (1041)^0 ,UK 583 (1}*1\
albeit its importance was mainly confined to the lifetime
of its founder Imad-u-Din, Kara Arslan Kuward> the
eldest son of Chakir Beg* This scion of the House of
Seljuk was vigorous and capable, and found little difficulty
in seizing the province from the Buwayhid rulers, who
were weakened by family feuds. The elwmicier Mohamcd
Ibrahim relates that when Abu Kaltnjar, the hmd-n-Din,
marched from Fars to defend the province he was
poisoned by a favourite slave girl, but further efforts
apparently were made after his death. The Seljuk now
had to deal with the " Hot Country,0 which at this period
was independent Here again treachery was employed,
and Malik Kaward, as he is generally termed, not only
annexed the country down to the coast but compelled
the Governor of Hornur/, to fit out a fleet* in which he
crossed to Oman* As the result of his expedition this
province of Arabia remained for many years tributary to
Later in his reign Malik Kaward turned his attention
to Sistan, building a fort to close the pass on the only
route which united the two provinces, and erecting pillars
to serve as beacons in the desert. One of these two
columns, which is still intact, is now termed *< the Column
of Nadir" ; it was owing to the chronicle of Mohamed
Ibrahim that 1 was able to assign it to the first Seljuk
ruler of Kerman,1
The ambitions of Malik Kaward were boundless, and
he soon added Fars to his kingdom ; but he was obliged
to surrender this to Alp Arskn, who besieged Kerman*
Finally, upon the accession of Malik Shah, he made a bid
for the throne, and paid the penalty with his life*
Alp AnlcM) A.H. 455-465 (1063-1072).—During his
1 Ten TktoMtd Mlet> #(,> p. 418,